All photos used on this web site were taken by Maestro Stefanos.

Note that this is not intended as a comprehensive list of everything we referenced in writing these articles (there were many more), but it does hit the highlights. Some articles on this site use specific reference citing, some do not- this had to do with issues of flow, and also that we felt the references were more relevant to some topics (nerve damage and bondage) than others (general bondage safety).

[1] Stewart JE. (2000) Focal peripheral neuropathies. 4th Ed.

[2] Burnett M, Zager E. (2004) Pathophysiology of peripheral nerve injury: A brief review. Neurourgical Focus, 16 (5)

[3] Bickler PE, Schapera A, Bainton CR. (1990) Acute radial nerve injury from use of an automatic blood pressure monitor. Anesthesiology. 73: 186-188.

[4] Lin C, Jawan B, de Villa M, Chen F, Liu, P. (2001) Blood pressure cuff compression injury of the radial nerve. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 13(4): 306-308

[5] Sy WP. (1981) Ulnar nerve palsy possibly related to use of automatically cycled blood pressure cuff. Anesth Analg. 60

[6] Katirji MB, Wilbourn AJ. (1988) Common peroneal neuropathy: a clinical and electrophysiological study of 116 lesions. Neurology 38: 1723-8.

[7] Neal S, Fields K. (2010) Peripheral nerve entrapment and injury in the upper extremity. American Family Physician. 81(2): 147-155

[8] National Institutes of Health, US National Library of Medicine,

[9] “What makes your arms, legs and feet fall asleep?” 17 January 2001. 02 April 2012.

[10] National Institutes of Health, US National Library of Medicine,

[11] Winfree C, Kline D. (2005) Intraoperative positioning nerve injuries. Surgical Neurology. 63: 5-18

[12] Alvine FG, Schurrer ME. (1987) Postoperative ulnar-nerve palsy: are there predisposing factors? J Bone Joint Surg. 69A: 255- 9.

[13] Cummings C, Schneider D. (2008) Peripheral nerve injuries in baseball players. Neurologic Clinics. 26: 195-215

[14] WebMD.

[15] Stoelting RK. Postoperative ulnar nerve palsy—is it a preventable complication? Anesth Analg 1993;76:7 -9.

[16] Wheeless’ Textbook of Orthopaedics

[17] A Single Clinical Test For Functioning of All Three Nerves of the Hand, Internet Scientific Publications,



[20] General Principles of Orthopedic Injuries Joel M. Geidermanand Dan Katz, Rosen’s Emergency Medicine, Chapter 49, 511-533.e2

[21]  J Athl Train. 2012 Jul-Aug;47(4):435-43. doi: 10.4085/1062-6050-47.4.14. What is the evidence for rest, ice, compression, and elevation therapy in the treatment of ankle sprains in adults? van den Bekerom MP1, Struijs PA, Blankevoort L, Welling L, van Dijk CN, Kerkhoffs GM.

[22] Emerg Med J. 2008 Feb;25(2):65-8. doi: 10.1136/emj.2007.051664. Is ice right? Does cryotherapy improve outcome for acute soft tissue injury? Collins NC1.

[23] BMJ. 2010 May 10;340:c1964. doi: 10.1136/bmj.c1964. Effect of accelerated rehabilitation on function after ankle sprain: randomised controlled trial. Bleakley CM1, O’Connor SR, Tully MA, Rocke LG, Macauley DC, Bradbury I, Keegan S, McDonough SM.

[24]  World J Orthop. 2014 Apr 18; 5(2): 80–88.New perspectives for articular cartilage repair treatment through tissue engineering: A contemporary review Giuseppe Musumeci, Paola Castrogiovanni, Rosalia Leonardi, Francesca Maria Trovato, Marta Anna Szychlinska, Angelo Di Giunta, Carla Loreto, and Sergio Castorina

[25] Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2015 Jun;8(2):162-7. doi: 10.1007/s12178-015-9261-3. Alternative treatments for muscle injury: massage, cryotherapy, and hyperbaric oxygen. Tiidus PM1.

[26] Prognosis of acute compressive radial neuropathy. AUArnold WD, Krishna VR, Freimer M, Kissel JT, Elsheikh BSOMuscle Nerve. 2012 Jun;45(6):893-5.

[27] Compressive neuropathy in the upper limb. Mukund R. Thatte and Khushnuma A. Mansukhani


[29] Current Approach to Radial Nerve Paralysis. Lowe, James B. III M.D.; Sen, Subhro K. M.D.; Mackinnon, Susan E. M.D.

[30] Mackinnon SE. Pathophysiology of nerve compression. Hand Clin. 2002;18:231–41.

[31] Approach to Radial Nerve Paralysis. Lowe, James B. III M.D.; Sen, Subhro K. M.D.; Mackinnon, Susan E. M.D.

King M, Primary Surgery: Volume 1: Non-Trauma

Parkes, J. (2002) A Review Of The Literature On Positional Asphyxia As A Possible Cause Of Sudden Death During Restraint. British Journal Of Forensic Practice. 4(1) 24-30

Ivy, J. Harness Hang Syndrome: Fact and Fiction

Yeung SS, Yeung EW, Gillespie LD. (2011) Interventions for preventing lower limb soft-tissue running injuries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. July 6(7).

McHugh MP, Cosgrave CH. (2010) To stretch or not to stretch: the role of stretching in injury prevention and performance. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 20(2): 169-81

Jamtvedt G, Herbert RD, Folottorp S, Odgaard-Jensen J, Havelsrud K, Barratt A, Mathieu E, Burls A, Oxman AD. (2010) A pragmatic randomized trail of stretching before and after physical activity to prevent injury and soreness. Br J Sports Med; 44 (14): 1002-9

Small K, McNaughton L, Matthews M. (2008) A systematic review into the efficacy of static stretching as part of a warm-up for the prevention of exercise-related injury. Res Sports Med; 16(3):213-31